UP TO 14 GUESTS
Ancient Messene Full-Day Private Tour
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Ancient Messene private tour
- Corinth Canal
- Ancient Messene
- Ancient Messene Stadium
This tour will give you an excellent taste of Peloponnese countryside combining ancient Messene, one of the best excavated archaeological sites in Greece. We will begin with a drive along the coast. On the way, you will view some Greek seaside villages and the island of Salamis (where the historical naval battle took place between the Athenians and the Persians). Our first stop the Corinth Canal. Opened in 1892 and separating the Peloponnese peninsula from the rest of Greece and connecting the Saronic Gulf to the Corinthian Sea. You will have time to walk across on a pedestrian bridge to admire the canal closer.
Continuing we will drive to the remains of this vast ancient city, that are as extensive as those of Olympia and Epidaurus, yet Ancient Messene receives only a fraction of their visitors. Picturesquely situated on a hillside below the village of Mavromati and still undergoing excavation, the site comprises a large theatre, an agora (marketplace), a sizeable Sanctuary of Asclepius and one of the most impressive Ancient Greek stadiums. The entry includes the small museum at the site turn-off; don’t miss the impressive Arcadian Gate 800 m beyond, either.
The remains of this tremendous ancient city are complete with a grand Ancient Stadium, an Ancient Agora, an ancient theatre with a capacity of up to ten thousand spectators, and a fountain house. It is so well-maintained that you can easily envision the city in all of its glory.
Our next stop, Kalamata, is the second most populous city of the Peloponnese peninsula, after Patras, in southern Greece and the largest city of the homonymous administrative region. The capital and chief port of the Messenia regional unit, it lies along the Nedon River at the head of the Messenian Gulf.
Kalamata is renowned as the land of the Kalamatianos dance and Kalamata olives.
Inclusions - Exclusions
Private Tours are personal and flexible just for you and your party.
Professional Drivers with Deep knowledge of history. [Not licensed to accompany you in any site.]
Hotel pickup and drop-off
Transport by private vehicle
- Bottled water
- Licensed Tour guide upon request depending on availability [Additional cost – 330 €]
- Entrance Fees [12€ for over 6 yo for Non-EU & 24 yo for EU Citizens]
- Airport Pick Up and drop-off (Additional cost)
- Food & Drinks
ADMISSION FEES FOR SITES:
Summer Period: 10€ per person
(1 April – 31 October)
Messene: 10€ (08:00am- 20:00pm)
Winter Period: 6€ per person
(1 November – 31 March)
Messene: 5€ (08:00am- 15:30pm)
Free admission days:
- 6 March (in memory of Melina Mercouri)
- 18 April (International Monuments Day)
- 18 May (International Museums Day)
- The last weekend of September annually (European Heritage Days)
- Every first Sunday from November 1st to March 3rd
- 28 October
- 1 January: closed
- 25 March: closed
- 1 May: closed
- Easter Sunday: closed
- 25 December: closed
- 26 December: closed
Free admission for:
- Escorting teachers during the visits of schools and institutions of Primary, Secondary and Tertiary education and of military schools.
- Members of Societies and Associations of Friends of Museums and Archaeological Sites throughout Greece with the demonstration of certified membership card
- Members of the ICOM-ICOMOS
- Persons possessing a free admission card
- The employees of the Hellenic Ministry of Culture and Sports and the Archaeological Receipts Fund, upon presentation of their service ID card.
- The official guests of the Greek government, with the approval of the General Director of Antiquities.
- Young people, under the age of 18, after demonstrating the Identity Card or passport to confirm the age.
Reduced admission for:
- Greek citizens and citizens of other Member – States of the European Union who are over 65 years old, upon presentation of their ID card or passport for verification of their age and country of origin.
- Holders of a solidarity card
- Holders of a valid unemployment card.
- Large families’ parents of children up to 23 yrs old, or up to 25 yrs old (on military service/studying), or child with disabilities regardless the age, having a certified pass of large families, certification from the Large Family Association or a family status certificate issued by the Municipality
- Persons with disabilities (67 % or over) and one escort, upon presentation of the certification of disability issued by the Ministry of Health or a medical certification from a public hospital, where the disability and the percentage of disability are clearly stated.
- Single-parent families with minors, upon presentation of a family status certificate issued by the Municipality. In the case of divorced parents, only the parent holding custody of the children
- The police officers of the Department of Antiquity Smuggling of the Directorate of Security
- Tourist guides upon presentation of their professional ID card.
- University students and students at Technological Educational Institutes or equivalent schools from countries outside the EU by showing their student ID.
The famous Corinth Canal connects the Gulf of Corinth with the Saronic Gulf in the Aegean Sea. It cuts through the narrow Isthmus of Corinth and separates the Peloponnesian peninsula from the Greek mainland, thus effectively making the former an island. The canal is 6.4 kilometers in length and only 21.3 meters wide at its base. Earth cliffs flanking either side of the canal reach a maximum height of 63 meters. Aside from a few modest-sized cruise ships, the Corinth Canal is unserviceable to most modern ships. The Corinth Canal, though only completed in the late 19th century, was an idea and dream that dates back over 2000 thousand years.
Before it was built, ships sailing between the Aegean and Adriatic had to circumnavigate the Peloponnese adding about 185 nautical miles to their journey. The first to decide to dig the Corinth Canal was Periander, the tyrant of Corinth (602 BCE). Such a giant project was above the technical capabilities of ancient times so Periander carried out another great project, the diolkós, a stone road, on which the ships were transferred on wheeled platforms from one sea to the other. Dimitrios Poliorkitis, king of Macedon (c. 300 BCE), was the second who tried, but his engineers insisted that if the seas where connected, the more northerly Adriatic, mistakenly thought to be higher, would flood the more southern Aegean. At the time, it was also thought that Poseidon, god of the sea, opposed joining the Aegean and the Adriatic. The same fear also stopped Julius Caesar and Emperors Hadrian and Caligula. The most serious try was that of Emperor Nero (67 CE). He had 6,000 slaves for the job. He started the work himself, digging with a golden hoe, while music was played. However, he was killed before the work could be completed.
In the modern era, the first who thought seriously to carry out the project was kapodistrias (c. 1830), first governor of Greece after the liberation from the Ottoman Turks. But the budget, estimated at 40 million French francs, was too much for the Greek state. Finally, in 1869, the Parliament authorized the Government to grant a private company (Austrian General Etiene Tyrr) the privilege to construct the Canal of Corinth. Work began on Mar 29, 1882, but Tyrr’s capital of 30 million francs proved to be insufficient. The work was restarted in 1890, by a new Greek company (Andreas Syggros), with a capital of 5 million francs. The job was finally completed and regular use of the Canal started on Oct 28, 1893. Due to the canal’s narrowness, navigational problems and periodic closures to repair landslips from its steep walls, it failed to attract the level of traffic anticipated by its operators. It is now used mainly for tourist traffic. The bridge above is perfect for bungee jumping.
Before this city was built there was a very small village on the site, called Ithomi, named after the mountain it’s was built on. At this time there was an acropolis on the mountain top, where an old church now stands. But the inhabitants were driven out or enslaved after the Spartan invasion. Messene was founded in 740 BCE by the Theban general Epaminondas when he freed the area of Spartan rule. It is one of the rare sites that were never completely destroyed or built over. Messene was a real city it has sanctuaries, public buildings, tombs, houses, and fortifications. The city was very well planned all the buildings had the same direction, east to west and all the roads were north to south, making up an urban grid known as the Hippodameion System.
The first small excavation began in 1831 by a French group. The Greek Archaeological Society began excavations of the public buildings in 1895 under Themistocles Sofoulis. Then George Economou was in charge of the digs in 1909 and in 1925. But it wasn’t till 1957 under Anastasios Orlandos, that excavations were done on a regular basis, (every summer). In 1986 the Society put Professor of Archaeology Petros Themelis in charge. Altogether they have made some incredible finds bringing to life the buildings that Pausanias saw and described when he visited the city in (155-160 AD)
The circular wall surrounding Messene is 9 km long and 7 to 9 m high. It is made entirely of stone and was regularly reinforced. The stone is bulging and rough, not a straight cut, flat surface to show strength. It had 30 two-story squared and rounded guard towers, barracks and two monumental gates, the Arcadian Gate and the Laconian Gate. The best-preserved part is on both sides of the Arcadian Gate, this gate is so wide that even trucks can pass through. On the floor of the gate, there is a small mosaic pig. This was a symbol of Dimitra, of fertility, of life; it was put here by the artist to symbolize the rebirth of the area.
The theater which dates back to the Hellenistic Period was reconstructed in the years of the Emperors Augustus Tiberius and in the mid-2nd century AD, by the wealthy Roman family named Saithidas but in Early Christian times, many parts of the theater were used to build the churches. The theater is one of the largest in the ancient world. It seated 12,000 people. It is not built against a hill as most were, so they had to build a semi-circular surrounding which had two walls with dirt in-between them to hold it up. Near the stage, there was running water, and we can still hear the water today. In the front seats, there are two thrones (originally there were six of them) for priests and important city officials. The priest would wash his hands and then go to the altar where offerings we placed before the play started. The stage was the first with mobile scenes that were pulled on wheels on the grooves incarved on the floor. There was also a skinothiki with a platform. The stage had an opening of 40 m. and is in the Roman style while the rest is Hellenic. In Roman Times the place of the Orchestra was used for gladiator fighting.
This is one of the best-preserved in all of Greece and unique because it is the only combined Stadium and Gymnasium. In ancient Greece the Gymnasium wasn’t a place you worked out, it was a school. From inscriptions, we know that it was founded in the 3rd century BCE. Inside the stadium some of the seats are white. These seats are new and put in to complete the seating. On the high left side of the seating, reading the letters on the side of the steps while coming down we read the name ‘Nikiratus’. These seats were bought from the city in the name of Tibarius Claudius Nikiratus to seat his family and friends. But we see letters on other steps too, graffiti in bold, large uneven letters. We know these are from Roman Times because Greek writing was smaller, neat and uniform in size, more discrete. These are of a more brutal time of gladiators and animal fights. In Roman times the south side of the “horseshoe» stadium was closed off to give it an oval shape cutting off the Hellenic part, turning the stadium into an arena. The stadium was surrounded by Doric halls that belonged to the gymnasium and to the west of this was the Palaestra. These 3 covered halls were in the shape of the Greek letter Pi. The northern hall was a double one so it had an inner and outer row of columns. The east and west ones were single. Many statues were found in the west hall. These can be seen in the museum. The most impressive is Herms of Messenia. He is 207 cm high and a replica of the 4th century BCE Herms. The only difference is in the face. The artist used the face of a Messenian youth who had died. These halls were where the students worked out or had lessons in heatwaves or harsh winter. In the gymnasium, the courses were Arithmetic, Literature, Geometry, and Music. During recess, the boys played games. They played naughts and crosses and dice games, these games and names have been found carved into the stones of its propylaea. There are also columns full of names. These are the school rosters; on the bottom of some lists is the word ΤΡΟΦΙΜΟΣ and a name. The Trofimos was a freed slave who cooked for and served the students. All the students were of the elite class and only free men and landowners could send their boys here.
During the 2nd century AD, the city was at its peak the Saithidas family funded the reconstruction of the stadium. So the family mausoleum was put on the far south side looking into the stadium. This memorial was a four-column Doric prostyle temple. Pausanias tells us that the man they honored so much was a lifelong Messenian high priest and Elladarchis of the public of Achaia (in Roman Times). West of the western hall there is another tomb, one with the ramp, on the grounds of its entrance in the Ionic eaves are the names of the dead men and women who have been honored. Inside were 8 cist graves, two by two around a square tray. The building was square 4.66 m x 4.66 m with a conical roof. On the roof was a Corinthian column with bronze work on it (which has been saved). This type of monument is not typical of the Hellenic Period. There is another tomb. It is a peioschimo monument. On its east side, it had friezes with a series of animals and then detached a lion eating a deer. This tomb was sealed with a stone door (like the Macedonian tombs). Inside seven cist graves were found along with funeral gifts and gold jewellery.
THE WATER SOURCE OF ARISONE
Between the theatre and the agora, a large water source was found. And Pausanias tells us that it was the Source of Arsione. Arsione was the daughter of the mythical king of Messenia Leucippus and the mother of Asclepius. The water here originated from the source Klepsidra. The source had three tanks, the longest one was 40 m long and it was in front of a retaining wall between the wall and the tank was a small portico with Ionic half-columns. A semi-circular podium right in the middle of the tank carried a group of bronze statues. The other 2 tanks were lower and placed on either side of the paved patio. The source was built in three stages. Its first building stage (late 3rd century BCE) the source was enclosed with Doric columns. These were removed in the second stage (1st century) but the final repairs and remodeling came in the years of Emperor Diocletian (284 – 305 ΑD). The early Christians who also used the source built a watermill in the early 6th century AD.
In the Roman Era, the aristocrats liked to live close to the theatres and that’s what they did in Messene. In the villas found, of the late Roman Period, beautiful mosaic floors have been found. Some have geometrical shapes, another has the name of its (renowned of the time) artist, but the most special is what we think is the house of Saithidas (4th century AD). One floor is framed with ivy leaves (which celebrate Dionysos) with a frame of geometrical shapes and then a young Dyonisos (in eastern style dress) with the female figure of Ariadne. There is also a smaller figure to the left, kissing the god’s hand this is the house owner.
The ancient agora was huge, it had the temples of Messena and Ascplepius but also temples of Poseidon, Zeus, and Aphrodite as Pausanias tells us. Here we have the roman bathes with little terracotta columns. A clay floor lay over these and the bathes were heated by fire lit under the floor. This method is called hypocaust. The Arora was full of people it was for walking, displays, and entertainment. It had frescos and conches with statues. But it was also a business and government area; on the east edge are three marble tables which are in very good condition. These were for the merchant control. Each table had different sized cavities, one for wine one for oil and one for cereals. Traders were checked at least once a year and the punishment for shopkeepers who cheated their customers was harsh.
Pausanias tells us that the Asclepion was a museum of statues and was not just for the sick. It had over 140 bases for bronze statues. It is a large almost square area (71.91x 66.67m) with 4 internal halls of Corinthian columns opening to the central open-air courtyard. On the east of this are 3 buildings, the first on the corner, is the small, roofed, theater-like ekklisia, the propylion, and the Synedrion which also has a hall of archives. The ekklistirion was a long structure with 2 entrances and a semi-circular orchestra that seated 800 people. It was also a theater but only for religious plays. It had beautiful colored mosaic tiles covering the 21 m stage and the foreground had 3 openings. Standing on the stage you would have been able to see the temple of Zeus Ithamoda on the mountain top, where the old monastery now stands. But it also had a political character making the city more democratic. Today the ekklistirion is used for cultural events. On the north side of the courtyard is the temple of the Asclepius, with its large alters. The outside was 13.67×27.94 m on a 3 step krepis and was 9 m high. The cella, the pronaos, and the opisthodomos were made of local limestone but the colonnade was coated in sandstone. On its east side is a ramped entrance.
THE TEMPLE OF ARTEMIS
The temple of Artemis is covered because some parts of it are made of sandstone. In the center of the temple is the podium of the statue of the goddess Wise Artemis. Pausanias tells us that it was the work of Damofondas. It is interesting that in the sikos were a seiries of statues on pedestals about 10 of them. To the right is the alms chest for wishes and favors from the goddess. It had a strong stainless steel cover with 2 locks, one on each side, and a slit to put the coins in.
EARLY BYZANTINE BASILIKA
Even though there had been Christians here, in Messene, since the 3rd century AD, this Early-Byzantine Basilica wasn’t built till the late 7th-early 8th century AD when their population became stronger. There were at least 2 basilicas in the agora and at least 40 Christian tombs have been found. The whole area from the church to the theater was a cemetery. On this basilica there is an inscription read ‘the work of Isidos’ and we know from Pausanias that a temple of Isis was nearby. To make this church, material not only from the temple but from other buildings were used too, especially from the theater. Much of the theaters seating were used here. The church seems to have been reconstructed at some time, we don’t know when, but we do know that a Christian population continued here till the 15th century.
In the Hierothision there was an ancient tripod here which Homer refers to as ‘apyroi’ which means without fire. This was a building that housed the statues of all 12 Olympian gods. But there was also a bronze statue of Epaminondas, the Theban general who freed the land from Spartas rule and founded the city. All the Statues were of equal size which shows us just how important Epaminondas was and how much they honored him.
Many other buildings have been found in the city. One of these is a sculptor’s workshop. It was a large workshop because it had apprentices. In it was found a pit full of rejected body pieces. The workshop dates back to the time of Augustus, which is also the time of the replicas and portraits.
ZEUS ITHOMATA- ACROPOLIS
Continuing up the mountain, on the ancient road, there was a limestone quarry. The road has marks from the heavy carts that carried the stones. And further up where the old monastery (dedicated to the Virgin) stands was the acropolis. The whole mountain was dedicated to Zeus Ithomata, from where it gets its name. The Messenians believed that Zeus was born and brought up here. So naturally on the mountain top was the great temple of Zeus. On the side of the old monastery, built into the wall is a large base of a bronze tripod. This would have had 3 bronze legs which had lion’s feet and on top was a bronze cauldron the tripod dates back to the early stages of the temple about the 8th century BCE, way before the founding of the city. The acropolis played a great part in the 1st Messenian-Spartan War (7th century BCE) where the Messenians lost after a heroic siege and again in the 6th century BC. In 465 BC, however, an earthquake hit Sparta and the Messenian slaves found the opportunity to revolt. The revolt is the 3rd Messenian -Spartan War. After the Spartans won again they made the Messenians sign a treaty in 459 BCE. Under the terms of this treaty, the defeated Messenians would be free to go but, only if they, and their entire families, agreed to leave Peloponnisos. During Frankish times, the acropolis was reconstructed into a fort, and named Castle Voulkanou and in 1358 it was given to Nerio the 1st Astagoli, Prince of Achaia.
This is a small museum that houses some of the finds of the site. It is built on land donated to the Archaeological Society of Greece by homogenous D. Lazaridis.
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Regarding the Day Tours:
Cancellations up to 24 hours before your service date are 100% refundable.
- Licensed Tour Guides and Hotels are external co-operators & they have their own cancellation policy.
- Apart from the above cancellation limits, NO refunds will be made. If though, you fail to make your appointment for reasons that are out of your hands, that would be, in connection with the operation of your airline or cruise ship or strikes, extreme weather conditions or mechanical failure, you will be refunded 100% of the paid amount.
- If your cancellation date is over TWO (2) months away from your reservation date, It has been known for third-party providers such as credit card companies, PayPal, etc. to charge a levy fee usually somewhere between 2-4%.
- Olive Sea Travel reserves the right to cancel your booking at any time, when reasons beyond our control arise, such as strikes, prevailing weather conditions, mechanical failures, etc. occur. In this unfortunate case, you shall be immediately notified via the email address you used when making your reservation and your payment WILL be refunded 100%.